Al – Ghazali. Islamic Philosophy of Economics
Leiden University, Research Master: Middle East Studies, MA Seminar (Dr. Mohamed Ghaly): Interpreting Islam: Ijtihad, economics and bioethics in Islam
Ethics and Economy in Islam: Contribution of Imam Al Ghazali in focus
Imam Abu Hamid Al Ghazali – the man and his time
Abū Ḥamid Al Ghazali or simply Imam al Ghazali was born in 450 A.H. – 1058 A.C., in the town of Taberan in Khurasan, Persia. He died in the same town in 1111 A.C. The study at madrasah infused in him a strong desire for knowledge. He pursued studies in Islamic sciences (Qur’ān, Ḥadīṯ, jurisprudence). At an early age he came to Baghdad where he was appointed lecturer at the Nizamiyya School (1091 A.C.) established by the caliph Nizām Al Mulk, where he spent 10 years. Al Ghazali went during his lifetime through various stages of worldviews and ways of acquiring knowledge – from Islamic theology, philosophy to Sufism. Despite his renome as a scholar, he gave up his position as a lecturer Baghdad and embarked on 10 years long journey, visiting Damascus, Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina and many other cities, in order to perform the pilgrimage and to achieve the “inner truth” he himself was preaching about. This journey was not simply a travelogue but a quest to encounter the true meaning of knowledge; to experience and reach out for the inner most and genuineness of existence itself.
According to Alija Izetbegović, Prophet Muhammad was seen as a spiritual prophet as well as the social and political leader of the worldly life; in his life time in the cave where the first verses of the Holy Qur’ān were revealed to him, including the Meccan life, designate the so called “spiritual period”, whilst the Medina period set the social and juridical rules, claiming the necessity of the great “come back” to the urban surroundings1. As a Sufi, Al Ghazali had to leave behind the worldly endeavours and as a Sufi he had to experience a great come back, to master upon the coherence of the different parts of religion, and to make it a “simplistic” component of daily life. That is why he is called a renewer (mujaddid).2 This spiritual journey had an immense influence on him, which in turn was visible also in his writings.
Legacy of Iḥya’ Ulūm al-Dīn (The Revival of Religious Sciences)
Iḥya’ is believed to be the most important book of Al Ghazali. The book deals with the intimate relationship between deeds and disposition of the soul, between outer and inner world, regulations and values. Al Ghazali had put an immense amount of effort in writing Iḥya’, also called the source or encyclopaedia of knowledge, in which he undertook the task of gaining spiritual existence and illumination.3 During his journey, in Damascus, he locked himself in solitude and contemplation and devoted himself to write Iḥya’.
He who does not realise the poison that the world contains, does not feel its evil nature and its meanness and does not know that in this world and in its delicacies that seem to be faultless, is his uneternity… When a learned man loves the world, the deliciousness of worship departs from his heart… Divine experiences are never gained without renouncing the world first.4
It covers different theological, legal and philosophical aspects on more than 1700 pages.
The book addresses a wide rage of topics, on many occasions mentioning and developing the idea of ethical-economic virtues in the light of tawḥīd.
Knowledge and learning was a virtue for al Ghazali, compulsory for every Muslim: “That day is real in one’s life on which this knowledge gains ground in him and brings him a step nearer to God, or else the day is lost to him… Knowledge is superior to wealth… The food of the heart is knowledge and ingenuity. He who does not possess knowledge is like a person seriously ill, and he must undergo death, for ignorance is death”.5 Learning is not simply acquiring knowledge in religious domain, but is also linked to the mundane, of how one should lead his or her life in the dunyā (worldly life). Al Ghazali interprets the notion of knowledge from the Islamic perspective – knowledge has to be interrelated to human activities. The acquisition of knowledge underlines the Qur’ānic worldview of importance of human labour and production of wellbeing within society. Al Ghazali argued that Islam asks upon humans to maintain a balance between desire and abstinence from material world in order to reach the inner content and awareness of tawḥīd. One does not need to sacrifice the pleasures of dunyā for the sake of āḫira (hereafter), but rather to constantly bestow and bewilder the mundane reality.
Before engaging in the ethically-economic thought of Al Ghazali, I will briefly examine the notion of the “historical gap” in economics which is believed to exist from Ancient Greeks to European Renaissance. This claim is overthrown by Ghazanfar and other scholars in Medieval Islamic Economic Thought. Al Ghazali seems to be an essential and indeed influential figure when it comes to economic thought and Islamic ethics. This is also the reason for writing this very paper. Islamic civilization has contributed immensely to the economic thought in the midst of Islamic expansion of knowledge, during the period in Europe known as the “dark ages”. “Arab Scholastics were about as ‘European’ as any scholarship at the time”6, and almost all of intellectual developments and exchange of knowledge took place for centuries in the Mediterranean, and Ghazali took part in that contribution.
Ghazali’s economic philosophy is related mainly to the Islamic ethos of the Qur’an and the Sunna. Since contemporary Islamic economics are predominantly concerned with licit and illicit conduct e.g. what is lawful or unlawful according to Sharī’a, how should economic transactions be incorporated into the commercial economic system, how do Islamic banking system operates and other predominantly juridical-technical matters, Al Ghazali’s writings on economy is not only relevant from an Islamic perspective, but rather necessary in shedding light on ethics in economics, since intervention of ethical codes and interrelation with the moral conduct are missing in contemporary economics.
Al Ghazali’s philosophy on the notion of Islamic economics and ethics
One of the overriding concepts of Al Ghazali based upon Sharī’a which encompasses all human activities, including economic, is maṣlaḥa which promotes social welfare of community7. All matters and activities of human being have to be seen as a means to achieve goals in increasing the social welfare. The institution of maṣlaḥa is well defined by Al Ghazali, concerning individual as well as social needs.
According to Al Ghazali there are five compulsory Sharī‘a based foundations or components for a proper and just individual and social life: 1. dīn (religion), 2. nafs (life of soul), 3. naṣl (family) 4. mal (wealth) and 5. ‘aql ( intellect, reason).8 Maṣlaḥa as a “public good” is inextricably related to Sharī’a, which key objective is advocating what is according to the Qur’an perceived as good in the mundane and in the Hereafter (maṣlaḥa al dīn wa al dunyā). Thus the noblest deed in the sight of Allah is the promotion of general (public) good in the society. Al Ghazali discusses three aspects of maṣlaḥa in a hierarchical form: necessities (ḍarurāt), conveniences or comforts (ḥajāt), and refinements or luxuries (taḥsināt).9 These foundations have to be constantly revised by the people themselves. The second foundation comprises “all activities and things that are not vital to the preservation of the five foundations, but, rather, are needed to relieve or remove impediments and difficulties in life”10, whereas the third foundation includes activities that are perceived as a surplus or additional to the basic necessities.
Islamic economics, the notion of Hereafter (āḫira), basic needs, sharing and just conduct
Since Al Ghazali positions economic activities within the parameters of the Islamic worldview, the Hereafter is seen as the ultimate goal of human beings. Qur’anic verse Lā tansa naṣībaka min al-dunyā, (“do not forget your share in the world”)11 can be understood in the light of not neglecting one’s share/contribution/effort in this world for the Hereafter. On the other hand, dunyā or mundane is not seen primarily as a temporal place but rather a struggle and preparation for the salvation, and this struggle has to be utilized through human endeavours and affairs, which include also the economic pursuits. Thus, economic activity is a prerequisite for the salvation.
In accordance with fiqh Al Ghazali has analyzed three elements of trade: agreements of buyer and seller, commodities of the transaction, and the content of the agreement.12 He criticised those who believe that economic activities are related only to the substance of survival or living.13 He states that “Cities have been destroyed, the places turned into dust, bodies decayed, and sjulls are all rolling in dust. The world is a brilliant bowman, of which man is a target. Take only that much of goods from the world as are absolutely necessary for your earthly sojourn. If you want to be saved from the mischief of the world, then consider your wealth and dust as equal”.14
Level of consumption thus has to range between necessity and extravagance.15 Whilst necessity has to be fulfilled by the consumer for it is perceived as a religious obligation, extravagance is ḥarām. According the Al Ghazali all economic activities have to provide basic human needs – food, clothing, and shelter.16 These basic human needs are consistent with Sharī’a, thus Al Ghazali tries to deliver information from his economic inquiry of various material matters that relate to provide and please human conditions, as part of the idea of Islamic social welfare. In Mizān al ‘Amal, Al Ghazali mentions three levels of consumption: the lowest, the middle, and the highest, and each of the basic things can be applied to each of the three levels – as a necessity, convenience or luxury. His discussion on need and surplus of material things is linked with the percept of the relation between wealth and poverty. Abu Hazem pointed out that that the basic human needs are what one needs in order to reach the state of content: “If you seek in this world what suffices you, then the least of this world will suffice you. And if you seek what fulfills you and you can’t be fulfilled by what suffices you, then nothing in this world will fulfill you”.17
Acquiring wealth is intrinsic to human nature and a means for providing wellbeing for society. Al Ghazali recognizes that “Man loves to accumulate wealth and increase his possessions of all kind of property…”18. And the reason behind it is according to him high aspirations, an “infinite luck” men strive for – the percept that the wealth will last. He is also critical towards the disproportionate upsurge of income in a society. He maintains that the ummah (Islamic community with its spiritual features) ought to exercise also humanitarian charity endowment (waqf). He mentions three stages of sharing: 1. A lower stage where a person sacrifices for his brother without expecting anything in return, 2. A higher level, presupposes that a person considers his brother as himself and spends upon him as if he would spend on himself, whilst the highest level indicates that brother’s need are to be preferred over one’s own needs.
If voluntary (humanitarian) sharing and feeling of brotherhood is not intrinsic constituent of Islamic belief, meant for those who are in a material (financial) need, two culpable consequences are likely to emerge in the society: extravagance and miserliness or avariciousness. 19 Both are in clear opposition to the Sharī’a, for excessive activity (wasting, spending etc.) is illicit: “Make not thy hand tied to thy neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach, so that thou become blameworthy and destitute.” (Qur’an 17:29)… “Those who when they spend are not extravagant and not niggardly, but hold a jus (balance) between these extremes.” (Qur’an, 25:67). Thus, Al Ghazali states that money (māl) has been created for a specific purpose in order to fulfil needs of human beings. Miserliness means that where money should be spent is restricted, whilst extravagance suggests the opposite, where money should not be spent, there is an excessive expenditure of it. Utilization of wealth should be therefore in accordance with Islamic jurisprudence, which would secure not only one’s welfare but rather the procedure of spending on lawful products in a lawful way. By following Islamic principles misuse of monetary activities would be minimized due to the regulations of Sharī’a. Nevertheless, the ultimate goal is the remembrance of the Hereafter. The Qur’ān encourages the acquisition of wealth20, along the strict rulers of Sharī’a, but does not advocate the lust of money or spending and fulfilling personal goals over the needs of community and those in need. Therefore, as indicated by Al Ghazali, an individual should realize the objectives of wealth and money as indicated by the Sharī’a; follow the righteous means of acquiring income; earn and spend no more than one needs; and not forget about the truthful intention behind one’s economic activities – all stages have to be realized not for the sake of acquiring wealth but in the name of Allah. This is the Islamic idea of the piousness (taqwā).
Economics of Al Ghazali
Most of his ideas on economics are to be found in Iḥya’ Ulūm al-Dīn. Seven requirements have to be met by a human being for an overall preservation of the dīn or religion, while practicing the economic purchase.21 First is the good intention at the very beginning of economic activity, in order to free oneself from envy and assistance from others, as well as to provide for one’s own household. In this respect one has to have in mind the state of other Muslims, ‘adl and iḥsān (equity and good-heartedness), and amr bi al-ma’rūf wa nahy ‘an al-munkar (leading the path of rightness). Secondly, human being has to fulfil the requirement of social utility also in trade and commerce, otherwise the repudiation of economic activities can become a threat for human kind. Thirdly, economic activities should not renounce humans from the Islamic principles, therefore the pursuit of the “mundane market” should be in reliance with the Hereafter. Fourth, remembrance of Allah (s.w.t.) should be present in the market or trading processes. Further, humans should not be greedy, albeit economic engagement is permited in Islam.22 Apart from legal opinions (fatwā) a Muslim should listen to his/her own voice in order to achieve resonance in trading along with the Islamic principles23. The last constituent is a fair trade and behaviour.
Voluntary exchange, trade and evolution of markets
For Al Ghazali markets evolve naturally, since self-motivated human desire to satisfy economic needs exist. Al Ghazali explains how people from different walks of lives come together in order to exercise products exchange: “…People’s own needs and interests create the need for each other and for transportation. Then, a class of professional traders who carry goods from one place to another is created. The motive behind all these activities is the accumulation of profits, no doubt.”24 The necessity of division and specialization of labour is thus seen in the light of covering all aspects of human (economic) activities and providing different ways of trading with respect to people. Mutuality and interexchange of economic activities necessitates division of labour25, which has to rest upon the business or trade ethics.
According to Ghazanfar, Al Ghazali indicated the relation between the market and price relation correctly when stating that the farmer sells his product at a low price due to the necessity of not having enough buyers. Further, he suggests that seller should out of his benevolence not accept high profit of particular product just because the buyer is anxiously interesting in buying it. The limit of the profit is not clear by Al Ghazali, nevertheless given the role of benevolence and overall injunction of Sharī’a, the rate should not exceed 5-10 % of the price of a good26.
Since food is perceived as a basic human necessity27 trading in food should not be motivated by profit but rather to fulfil the needs of the community. Profit itself is not a necessity28, but rather a surplus of living conditions. Food has to be thus available at low prices so that everyone could afford it. The emphasis is put on the exploitation of prices of food, which is in Al Ghazali’s perception clearly illicit. Other necessities e.g. clothing, shelter and medicine are also placed in the same category of basic needs for which no extra profit should be extracted from the price. Although Al Ghazali’s intentions are indeed noble and praiseworthy, according to Ghazanfar and Islahi he does not consider certain negative effects of supplying such necessities. However, detailed and sufficient description of those effects is not provided by them.
Market has to function according to moral standards and basic ethical principles of Sharī’a which would be beneficial for society as a whole. The example of hoarding foodstuff in order to increase food price is prohibited, as everyone has the right to buy food directly from the market at the affordable prices. If there are enough supplies in society then hoarding might be allowed under certain conditions and “Hoarding of medicines and other items which are not part of food and nutrition and not part of general needs is not quite ḥarām”.29 The price of products is a very sensitive matter and that is why Al Ghazali is very affected by the notion of truth when declaring the price of a good or in a transaction. “Economic truthfulness” is a prerequisite and a significant component of a Sharī’a-based economic conduct. Since prices are set by the market activities, economic engagement should thus reflect Islamic values, attitude and benevolence (iḥsān), as an activity which transcends pure material exchange of goods. Markets therefore ought not to function freely30 and not according to set prices. Benevolence in market should be exercised through the advertisement of the fair price of a product; leniency when purchasing from a poor seller; fair repayments; paying one’s debt; and extension of credit or delay of payment when selling to the poor.31
In order to achieve the Hereafter from an economic perspective, the following guidelines should be taken into consideration32: the trader ought to act in accordance with Islamic principles of correctness and pure intentions; one should desire business in order to contribute towards public good (maṣlaha); succession of material should not precede the succession of spiritual (desires of the dunyā vs. the Hereafter); and one should restrict oneself from the unlawful manners.
Barter system and the function of money
Money is according to Al Ghazali one of the most important inventions of civilization, for it has to be utilized only to alleviate exchange of goods and economic transactions within society. Al Ghazali explains how money can be utilized by employing the idea of exchange of different products, which intrinsically posses different value apart from their amount. At the same time Al Ghazali warns that money does not posses value on its own, but it is rather attached to it for the sake of transaction. This can be centuries later observed in writings by Karl Marx and Fridrich Engels. Similar is discussed by Roger Garaudy:
“The needs have anarchically and excessively multiplied and they have been used for manipulation according to production, motivated only by the will to power and growth. Exploited resources are also being wasted in an anarchical manner, where the same intention for generating more profit reigns. In addition, the resources are being exhausted…And the same is with technology – due to the pressure for growth the technology is able to destroy our own lives…Inequality grows, especially between the industrialized countries and the rest, through international division of labour.” 33
Value is thus inextricably related to commodities and goods and not to money. All valuable commodities are differentiated according to their intrinsic value, and as a means to an end, or to both of the two.34 Gold and silver are seen as a means of an end:
“Creation of dirhams and dinars (i.e. gold and silver coins) is one of the bounties of Allah. The entire world of economic activities is based on transactions with these two kinds of money. They are two metals, with no benefits in themselves. However, people need them, in order to exchange them for different things – food, clothing, and other goods. Sometimes a person needs what he does not own and he owns what he does not need.”35
Money has no purpose on its own but serves only as a medium to enable certain exchanges. Therefore the value of exchanged good has to be known and recognized. Trading in gold and silver for the purpose of making profit is condemned, whilst selling gold for silver or vice versa is licit, since economic transaction is a medium of exchange.36 Money has to circulate and since usury means an end of its function, is zulm37 (injustice).
Moderation of spending is a prerequisite for a just earning of livelihood, whilst hoarding of money is against Sharī’a, whence money can be utilized only for transactions in order to suffice needs and as a measure of value. Money caries value attached to it and ought not to be desired for accumulation of it.
Anyone who uses money contrary to its objectives or functions is ungrateful to the bounty of Allah. If someone hoards dirhams and dinars, he is a transgressor…They are created to circulate from hand to hand, to govern and facilitate transactions. They are symbols to know the value and grades of goods. Anyone who converts them into utensils of gold and silver is ungrateful to his Creator…Prophet (peace be upon him) said, one who drinks in gold and silver utensils, he is like one who takes the fire of hell in his stomach.38
Al Ghazali in Iḥya’ Ulūm al-Dīn does not mention the problem of ribā in loans, but rather discusses the nonmonetary transactions where interest might occur subtly. The prohibition of ribā is well known in Islamic economic though. However Al Ghazali emphasizes the disguised forms of ribā. One occasion is in the exchange of gold for gold, or any other good for the same good but with differences in quantity or time of delivery. In this case ribā might occur when the time of delivery is postponed and the excess quantity of commodity might be cancelled. This is called ribā al nāṣi’ah. Interest is here made due to the late payment. The second occasion is when the exchanged quantity is not equal in value. This is called ribā al faḍl. Interest is here done for overpayment of the commodity39.
By advocating the fair exchange and the prohibition of ribā Al Ghazali is not only employing the Islamic economics into discussion, but also indirectly criticising the system of accumulation of wealth which is inextricably linked to free market economy. The following quotation might be in this light perceived as the nutshell of all further economic discussion on the criticism of the utilization of money: “When someone is trading in dirhams and dinars themselves, he is making them as his goal, which is contrary to their objectives. Money is not created to earn money, and doing so, is a transgression.”40 In this respect money becomes an end and not a means and hoarding of money will inevitably increase. This is also valid for food supplies: foodstuff is “created to be used as a nutrition… to be eaten which is a dire need. This requires that they should go from the hands of that who does not need them to the one who needs them… If someone who has but does not need foodstuff is selling it as a trade commodity, he should sell it to that who needs it….41
Role of the state and public finances
Al Ghazali did not directly pierced through the realm of politics, albeit he offered many views and suggestions on how the government should respond in accordance with Sharī’a in order to stipulate the economic principles. The state is according to Al Ghazali a necessary institution, not only in regard to governance and leadership but also in the “fulfilment of Sharī’a-mandated connective obligations (furuḍ kifāya)”.42 State and religion are inseparable of society, for foundations of Islam are built upon the dichotomy of spiritual as well as social activity. “Man’s ability to fulfil all his needs alone persuades him to live in a society with cooperation; but tendencies like jealousy, competition, and selfishness can create conflicts, and, therefore some collective arrangements become necessary to check and control those tendencies.”43, al Ghazali argued.
Responsibility of the state is therefore to monitor the (economic) conduct in order to bring about prosperity and justice in society. State has to provide with conditions for peace and security if economically prosperous society is to be foreseen. The state is in this perspective perceived as a regulator of licit conduct (including itself as a subject of that very regulation) and a promoter of security. Further, markets are to be checked through the state: false transactions, incorrect weights or illicit contracts, purchases of unlawful commodities and frauds are to be sanctioned.
In Kitāb Naṣihāt al-Mulūk44, it is stated that the ruler (authority) should realize the importance of the role given to him, since the aim of the ruler is to obtain prosperity for its people. The ruler should be devoted to its position, should cooperate with ‘ulamā and not do injustice. Pride, anger and revenge should be diminished from ruler’s attitude. Sanctions filed by the ruler should be grounded on just basis and he should regard petitioners of his court. Indulgence in passion is prohibited, otherwise just policy will not be possible. Last but not least, the authority should maintain all subjects satisfied and pleased with the rule. Concerning the fair rule, the Prophet Muhammad said that “the best of my community are those who love you and whom you love, and the worst of my community are those who hate you and whom you course”.45
Al Ghazali differs from other scholars not only in clearly defining functions and roles of the state in their relation to Sharī’a and ethical impulses, but also in that he focuses on both sides of public budget – revenues and expenditures, by providing an insight what is today known as benefit-cost analysis.46
Sources of revenue should be according to Al Ghazali collected by all citizens, Muslims and non-Muslims. Revenues are for both groups solicited accordingly. Valid sources of revenues relate to property and assets without heirs, whose owners cannot be identified, or to the owner of waqf. In addition, zakāh and ṣadaqāt are to be employed as well, whilst confiscation of property and bribery are perceived as illicit sources of revenue.47 Al Ghazali further states that public finances are based mostly on illicit sources, “because the valid sources such as zakāh, ṣadaqāt, fāi’ and ghanimah, are nonexistent”.48 In the case of non-Muslims “spoils of war” or ghanimah is regarded as a confiscated property from the enemy during or after a war. Fāi’ is possession without any factual warfare, whilst jizya or poll tax is collected from non-Muslims who have been granted rights under the Islamic rule (dhimmis)49.
In the field of public expenditures Al Ghazali links impoverishment of people due to the deficient public services, which lead to migration and further general economic deterioration as well as decline of security measurements. Exploitation of the poor tends to follow, and for that reason “the security of the world depends on the discipline maintained by the Sultan”50, and poverty must be diminished in society if justice is to prevail, therefore public expenditures should address exactly that what they would be deployed for – to increase general welfare in society. Field of public expenditures is one of the most important platforms for public good (maṣlaha) and for that reason, fāi’ are to be intended to activities which would be beneficial for the whole community.
After all, it is the responsibility of people (society) to warn upon the inconsistencies of the state, for if the government tends to misuse its position, people ought to stand their voices against the injustice. It is written in the Tradition of the Prophet of Islam: Afdalu al jihād kalimat al haqq ‘inda ṣultanin jā’irīn – “The best jihad is the utterance of what is just in the presence of the tyrant”.51
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“Shaykh, Yusuf Hamza.” Accessed January 19, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPAbZ_IQgSg
Winter, Timothy: “The life and works of al-Ghazali 2/2.” Accessed January 14, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmNyOCCnZgg
Appendix 1: Selected quotations of Al Ghazali’s Iḥya’
من الذنوب ذنوب لايكفرها إلا الهم بطلب المعيشة ” . (الإحياء ج ٢ ص٢ ٣
“فمهما كان قصده بطلب المال مثلا التعفف عن السؤال ، ورعاية سنة المروءة على الأهل والعيال ، والتصدق بما يفضل
عن مبلغ الحاجة صار هذا.المباح ﺑﻬذه النية من أعمال الآخرة ” . الإحياء ج ٢ ، ص ٢٤٩
“ إذا اقتصر الناس على سد الرمق وزجوا أوقاﺗﻬم على الضعف فشا فيهم
الموتان ، وبطلت الأعمال والصناعات ، وخربت الدنيا بالكلية – وفي
خراب الدنيا خراب الدين لأﻧﻬا مزرعة للآخرة ” . الإحياء ج ٢ ، ص .١٠٨
والمبالغة تختلف بالإضافة إلى الأحوال فنقول من لم يملك إلا مائة دينار مثلا
معه عياله وأولاده ولا معيشة لهم سواه فأنفق الجميع في وليمة فهو مسرف
. يجب منعه الإحياء ج ٢ ، ص ٣٤
في المغابنة ، فينبغي أن لا يغبن صاحبه بما لا يتغابن به في العادة ،
فأما أصل المغابنة فمأذون فيه ، لأن البيع للربح ، ولايمكن ذلك إلا بغبن ما،
ولكن يراعى فيه التقريب ، فإن بذل المشتري زيادة على الربح المعتاد إما
لشدة رغبته أو لشدة حاجته في الحال إليه ، فينبغي أن يمتنع من قبوله ،
فذلك من الإحسان . ومهما لم يكن تلبيس لم يكن أخذ الزيادة ظلما . وقد
ذهب بعض العلماء إلى أن الغبن بما يزيد على الثلث يوجب الخيار ، ولسنا
نرى ذلك ، ولكن من الإحسان أن يحط ذلك الغبن ” .الإحياء ، .ج ٢، ص ٧٩
فهذا إحسان في أن لا يربح على العشرة إلا نصفا أو واحدا على ما جرت
به العادة في مثل ذلك المتاع في ذلك المكان ، ومن قنع بربح قليل كثرت
معاملاته واستفاد من تكررها ربحا كثيرا ، وبه تظهر البركة ” .الإحياء ج
.٢ ، ص ٨٠
ولو أقبل كلهم على صنعة لتعطلت البواقي وهلكوا ، وعلى هذا حمل بعض
الناس قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ؛ اختلاف أمتي رحمة أي اختلافهم في
الصناعات والحرف . (الإحياء ج ٢ ، ص ٩٣
فالخباز يخبز العجين والطحان يصلح الحب بالطحن والحراث يصلحه
بالحصاد، والحداد يصلح آلات الحراثة والنجار يصلح آلات الحداد وكذا
جميع أرباب الصناعات المصلحين لآلات الأطعمة ، والسلطان يصلح
الصناعات ، والأنبياء يصلحون العلماء الذين هم ورثتهم ، والعلماء
يصلحون السلاطين ، والملائكة يصلحون الأنبياء إلى أن ينتهي إلى حضرة
الربوبية التي هي ينبوع كل نظام ومطلع كل حسن وجمال ومنشأ كل ترتيب
.وتأليف” .الإحياء ج ٤ ، ص ١٢
1 Izetbegović, Alija: Moj bijeg u slobodu (Sarajevo: Izbrana djela, OKO, 2003), 236-237.
3 Behari, Bankery, trans., The Revival of Religious Sciences (Vrindaban: Mata Krishna Satsang, 1964), XVII.
4 ibid., 7-8, 97-98.
5 Behari, Bankery, trans., The Revival of Religious Sciences (Vrindaban: Mata Krishna Satsang, 1964), 2.
6 Ghazanfar, S.M. Medieval Islamic thought: filling the “great gap” in European economics (London: Routlegde, 2003), 49.
7 Al Ghazali, Abu Hamid. Iḥya’ Ulūm al-Dīn (Beirut: Darul Nadwah, n.d.), Vol. 2, 109.
8 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 7.
11 Saheeh International. The Qur’an (Jeddah: Almunatada Alislami; Abul Qasim Publishing House, 1997), 28:77
12 Sadeq A.M. Al “Ghazalijevi pogledi na ekonomske probleme i neka etičko-pravna pitanja značajna za ekonomsko ponašanje” in. Pregled islamske ekonomske misli, ed. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 150.
13 Al Ghazali, Abu Hamid. Iḥya’ Ulūm al-Dīn (Beirut: Darul Nadwah, n.d.), Vol. 2, 108
14 Behari, Bankery, trans., The Revival of Religious Sciences (Vrindaban: Mata Krishna Satsang, 1964), 100.
15 Ahmed El – & Rodney Wilson. Islamic Economics: A short History (Leiden: Brill, 2006), 250.
16 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 10.
18 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 11.
19 ibid., 12
20 ibid., 14
21 Sadeq A.M. Al “Ghazalijevi pogledi na ekonomske probleme i neka etičko-pravna pitanja značajna za ekonomsko ponašanje” in. Pregled islamske ekonomske misli, ed. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 159-162
22 “And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allah , and remember Allah often that you may succeed.” Saheeh International. The Qur’an (Jeddah: Almunatada Alislami; Abul Qasim Publishing House, 1997), 62:10.
23 Sadeq A.M. Al “Ghazalijevi pogledi na ekonomske probleme i neka etičko-pravna pitanja značajna za ekonomsko ponašanje” in. Pregled islamske ekonomske misli, ed. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 154.
24 Al Ghazali in Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 18.
25 Ghazanfar, S.M. Medieval Islamic thought: filling the “great gap” in European economics (London: Routlegde, 2003), 29.
26 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 20.
28 Sadeq A.M. Al “Ghazalijevi pogledi na ekonomske probleme i neka etičko-pravna pitanja značajna za ekonomsko ponašanje” in. Pregled islamske ekonomske misli, ed. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 172-173.
29 Al Ghazali, Abu Hamid. Iḥya’ Ulūm al-Dīn (Beirut: Darul Nadwah, n.d.), Vol. 2, 73.
30 Ghazanfar, S.M. Medieval Islamic thought: filling the “great gap” in European economics (London: Routlegde, 2003), 30.
31 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 22.
32 ibid., 23
33 See Roger Garaudy, Živi islam (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 2000), 135-136.
34 Ashqar, Ahmed El – & Rodney Wilson. Islamic Economics: A short History (Leiden: Brill, 2006), 248.
35 Al Ghazali in Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 27.
36 Ashqar, Ahmed El – & Rodney Wilson. Islamic Economics: A short History. (Leiden: Brill, 2006), 248.
37 Sadeq A.M. Al “Ghazalijevi pogledi na ekonomske probleme i neka etičko-pravna pitanja značajna za ekonomsko ponašanje” in. Pregled islamske ekonomske misli, ed. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 156.
38 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 29.
39 Ghazanfar, S.M. Medieval Islamic thought: filling the “great gap” in European economics (London: Routlegde, 2003), 36.
40 ibid., 31.
41 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 32.
42 ibid., 35
43 Al Ghazali, Abu Hamid. Iḥya’ Ulūm al-Dīn (Beirut: Darul Nadwah, n.d.), Vol. 4, 119.
44 Ghazanfar, S.M. Medieval Islamic thought: filling the “great gap” in European economics (London: Routlegde, 2003), 38
45 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 37.
46 ibid., 38
47 ibid., 39
48 Ghazanfar, S.M. Medieval Islamic thought: filling the “great gap” in European economics (London: Routlegde, 2003), 39.
49 Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 39.
50 ibid., 42
51 Sadeq A.M. Al “Ghazalijevi pogledi na ekonomske probleme i neka etičko-pravna pitanja značajna za ekonomsko ponašanje” in. Pregled islamske ekonomske misli, ed. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. (Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 167.